There are many tools in medical geology research. On this page some of these will me mentioned, especially databases which can be used. In most cases below free access can be given to the databases which can be used in medical geology research.


EuroGeoSurveys publishes the European Atlas of bottled water - around 1800 bottles examined

The scientists have found an enormous natural variation of many elements, including Arsenic and Uranium.

A new comprehensive guide to European groundwater prepared on the basis of analyses of bottled water will allow consumers to make a conscious choice of the best product for their health and taste. The new atlas, 'Geochemistry of European Bottled Water', presented on Wednesday 15th September by EuroGeoSurveys, the organisation of 32 European national Geological Surveys, provides the chemical composition of 1785 bottled water samples, divided into 1247 different sources at 848 locations, from 38 European countries altogether. EuroGeoSurveys geochemists analyzed the chemical composition of European bottled water from a geological point of view. The samples were purchased in supermarkets during 2008 and subsequently analyzed in one single laboratory. The survey is important, since more than 1900 brands of bottled water are currently registered in Europe and the market is rapidly expanding.

The published book contains a CD with all analytical results as exelfiles which can be use in for example medical geology.

Flyer on the book.


Geochemical databases from Northern Europe

This site contains information on geochemical databases from Northern
Europe, e g details on sampling media, analytical methods, parameters
analyzed, and where to find the databases."


Click on the image above to see it in detail!


FOREGS Geochemical atlas of Europe

Salminen R (Chief-editor)
Geochemical Atlas of Europe. Part 1 - Background Information, Methodology and Maps.
The IUGS/IAGC Global Geochemical Baselines Programme aims to establish a global geochemical reference baseline for >60 determinants in a range of media for environmental and other applications. The European contribution to the programme has been carried out by government institutions from 26 countries under the auspices of the Forum of European Geological Surveys (FOREGS) The main objectives of this European survey were: 1) to apply standardised methods of sampling, chemical analysis and data management to prepare a geochemical baseline across Europe; and 2) to use this reference network to level national baseline datasets.Samples of stream water, stream sediment and three types of soil (organic top layer, minerogenic top and sub soil) have been collected at 900 stations, each representing a catchment area of 100 km2, corresponding to a sampling density of about one sample per 4700 km2. In addition, the uppermost 25 cm of floodplain sediment was sampled from 790 sites each representing a catchment area of 1000 km2. All soil and sediment samples were prepared at the same laboratory, and all samples of particular sample types were analysed by the same method at the same laboratory. More than 50 elements, both total and aqua regia extractable concentrations, and other parameters (such as pH and grain size) were determined on the <2 mm grain size fraction of minerogenic samples, and total concentrations of organic soil samples were measured after using a strong acid digestion. Nine laboratories of European geological surveys carried out the analytical work. Altogether, 360 geochemical maps showing the distribution of elements across Europe have been prepared. All the results and field observations are organised in a common database and the maps are published as a Geochemical Atlas of Europe. All the sampling sites were photographed and this photo archive is also available. Samples have been archived in the Slovak Republic for possible future use. Initial results show that the distribution patterns of both water and solid samples are related to such factors as large-scale tectonic provinces, geochemical variation of large lithological units, extension of the Weichselian glaciation, and contamination reflecting industrialized areas and regions of intensive agriculture.

Below is the link to the FOREGS project. This is the most extensive environmental database covering the whole of Europe. It is new and you can explore the maps with this link. The complete database with all analytical data will soon be accessible on the web also.


Baltic Soil Survey

Baltic soil survey: total concentrations of major and selected trace elements in arable soils from 10 countries around the Baltic Sea.
Reimann C, Siewers U, Tarvainen T, Bityukova L, Eriksson J, Gilucis A, Gregorauskiene V, Lukashev V, Matinian NN, Pasieczna A.
Geological Survey of Norway, Trondheim.
Agricultural soils were collected from 10 European countries over a 1,800,000 km2 area surrounding the Baltic Sea. The sampling density was 1 site/2500 km2. Two samples were taken at each site: topsoil 0-25 cm (ploughing layer, Ap-horizon) and subsoil (bottom samples, usually B- or C-horizon) at an approximate depth of 50-75 cm, well below the ploughed layer. The samples were analysed for total element concentrations of 41 elements by WD-XRF. Analytical results for both layers are quite comparable. Large differences between element concentrations and variations can be observed for most elements when the different countries are compared. The Nordic countries show considerably higher concentrations and variations for quite a number of elements [Al, Fe, (Mg, P), Ti, Ba, Sc, Sr, V] in their agricultural soils. This is an expression of geology, the relatively younger age of the soils here and of the climatic conditions (reduced weathering rates). Regional geochemical maps demonstrate that geology overwhelmingly dominates the total concentration of chemical elements as observed in the agricultural soils. The three (four) large tectonic units (Caledonian mountain chain, Fennoscandian Shield and the northern and southern eastern European Platform) composing this area are all reflected in the regional maps.
The database can be downloaded free after request.


Kola Ecogeochemistry Project

An Environmental Investigation in Arctic Europe
The «Kola Ecogeochemistry» Project is concerned with: regional mapping of heavy metals and radioactivity pollution of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems an area of 188,000 km2 in the Barents Region, sulphur and trace element deposition, the impact of major industrial activity in the western Kola Peninsula, the degradation of a particularly vulnerable arctic environment.

For more information see